Defenseless Apis Mellifera?
In public opinion honey bees can not exist without the help of the beekeepers against the Varroa. People believe that the use of chemistry and acids is necessary.
Our highly bred honeybees have serious problems with the Varroa. Absent mite control leads to heavy losses. But if you leave the colonies to themselves for a long time, an adaptation between host and parasite takes place. Three different studies of different renowned scientists and institutes from different countries document this (you find the studies under Downloads).
Bee with Varroa mite
Varroa resistant bees on Gotland
A joint project of the University of Agricultural Sciences (Uppsala, Sweden), the Centre for Bee Research (Bern, Switzerland) and the State Institute of Apiculture (University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart) started a trial on the island of Gotland in 1999. 150 colonies with Varroa infected were left to their own devices without any intervention by the beekeeper.
Resistant bees in Avignon, Le Mans
Researchers from France observed colonies who have survived for at least 2 years without any interventions of bee keepers. They recorded Varroa infestation, mortality rate, colony strength, honeyproduction, swarms, etc. They carried out the same measurements on conventionally held bee colonies. In 1994 they started observing 12 untreated colonies, in 1998 they added another 42 untreated colonies and in 1999 another 28 untreated colonies.
The authors do not set up any significant differences between the mortality rates of the two experimental groups. Here, too, an adaptation between host and parasite is presumed.
On average, honey production is 1.7 times lower than that of the conventionally held colonies. . This, of course, makes us bee keepers uncomfortable. However, we should bear in mind that the bee colonies we work with have been bred for most honey production since decades. Natural selection and reproduction of the western honey bee is almost eliminated. Therefore it is not an unnaturally low honey production of the untreated colonies, but an unnaturally high production of the treated colonies!
The authors of the study see in the results a tolerance of the bees opposite the Varroa mites. They believe that beekeeping in France is possible with integrated Varroa management. Beekeeping, which interferes with the relationship between host and parasite only with the aid of soft biological or biotechnical agents.
Varroa resistant bees in Arnot Forest (New York State)
Thomas D. Seeley, one of the two authors of the study “The nest of the honey bee” from 1976, carried out a study in Arnot Forest between 2002 and 2005 on eight wild bee colonies in tree caves. The set of wildlife found there corresponded to the set of colonies the author had found a quarter of a century earlier by using the same methods (before Varroa came to North America). This study also reveals the viability of bee colonies infected with Varroa. The author suspects that the mite has adapted to its host due to the experiments carried out.